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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 106

Severe vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients: Comparative study on inhabitants of high altitude region

Department of Orthopaedics, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India

Correspondence Address:
S G Thejaswi
Department of Orthopaedics, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, 5th Mile, Tadong, Gangtok - 737 102, Sikkim
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_180_22

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Background: The present study was conducted to find the association between tuberculosis and vitamin D levels and assess severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis at high-altitude regions. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital situated at an average altitude of 5,412 feet above sea level. Newly diagnosed active cases of tuberculosis (Group A) and unmatched healthy individuals (Group B) were recruited in the study. Serum samples were analyzed for Vitamin 25(OH) D levels and correlated between the groups. Results: The study included 54 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients (Group A) (47 pulmonary and 7 extrapulmonary tuberculosis) and 87 healthy controls (Group B). Of the total 141 participants, 69 (49%) had severe VDD and 44 (31%) had VDD. The mean (SD) vitamin D level was significantly lower in patients having tuberculosis (12.6 ± 7 ng/mL) as compared to Group B (15.9 ± 7 ng/mL). The risk of tuberculosis infection was 2.13 times higher among those who had VDD (odds ratio = 2.13) (P-0.106), whereas those with severe VDD were at 3.2 times higher risk of developing tuberculosis (crude odds ratio = 3.2) (P = 0.001) and severe VDD independently contributed to being diagnosed with tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1) (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Vitamin D levels are significantly low in tuberculosis patients and severe VDD independently contributes to developing tuberculosis infection.

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