• Users Online: 748
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 94

Psychometric properties of the persian version of the multiple sclerosis work difficulties questionnaire (MSWDQ) questionnaire


1 Department of Neurology,Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Department of Neurology, Universal Council of Epidemiology (UCE), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Neurology,Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center; Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Neurology, Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran, University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Neurology, Universal Council of Epidemiology (UCE), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission13-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Jan-2021
Date of Web Publication24-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Mahsa Ghajarzadeh
Department of Neurology, Universal Council of Epidemiology (UCE), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_393_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from a wide range of psychological and physical problems. Employment status is a crucial issue for patients with MS as unemployment while it is not completely evaluated in patients with MS. Objectives: To assess psychometrical properties of the Persian version of the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire (MSWDQ). Methods: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled. They were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), social support scale, and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and translated version of the MSWDQ questionnaire. Twenty cases filed the questionnaire two weeks later to assess reliability. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbach's alpha, correlation coefficients were used. Results: Mean age and mean duration of the disease were 36.8 ± 9.1, and 7.5 ± 5.1, respectively. The Cronbach alpha for psychological/cognitive barriers subscale was 0.87, for Physical barriers was 0.83 and for external barriers was 0.86. The Cronbach α for the whole questionnaire was 0.89. There was a significant positive correlation between FSS and MSWDQ score, and a significant correlation with SF-36 and social support. The ICCs of all questions were acceptable. Conclusions: Persian version of MSWDQ questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating work-related problems in patients with MS.

Keywords: Iran, multiple sclerosis, Persian, work


How to cite this article:
Mirmosayyeb O, Shaygannejad V, Najdaghi S, Ghajarzadeh M. Psychometric properties of the persian version of the multiple sclerosis work difficulties questionnaire (MSWDQ) questionnaire. Int J Prev Med 2022;13:94

How to cite this URL:
Mirmosayyeb O, Shaygannejad V, Najdaghi S, Ghajarzadeh M. Psychometric properties of the persian version of the multiple sclerosis work difficulties questionnaire (MSWDQ) questionnaire. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 28];13:94. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2022/13/1/94/348246




  Introduction Top


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting women more than men.[1] It's the cause of disability in youth resulting in physical disabilities, emotional difficulties, marital problems and social isolation.[2],[3] Physical problems leading to disease-related disability as well as memory problems, and cognition disturbance is associated with work-related difficulties and work loss.[4],[5],[6] Employment status is a crucial issue for patients with MS as unemployment will lead to inactivity and cost impose to the patient and his/her family.[7] To address these issues, Honan et al.[8] developed the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire (MSWDQ) which is translated and validated in different languages.

As the number of patients with MS in increasing in Iran,[9] we designed this study to assess the psychometrical properties of the Persian version of MSWDQ.


  Methods Top


This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashani hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences between March and April 2020.

Inclusion criteria were: Definite MS diagnosis based on McDonald criteria, age more than 18, and being employee.

All enrolled cases were asked to fill informed consent form before study entrance.

Using the forward–backwards translation method, MSWDQ questionnaire was translated into the Persian language by a linguist. Afterward, the Persian version translated into English by another linguist.

The two versions were compared by a neurologist and also a researcher. Five neurologists assessed content validity to determine if all questions were relevant and necessary.

Twenty cases filed the questionnaire two weeks later to assess reliability.

MSWDQ shortened version of 50 item questionnaire, includes 23 questions, measuring the three domains: Physical, cognitive/psychological, and external work barriers.[8] It is useful for assessing MS-related occupational difficulties and predicting employment outcomes.

For construct validity, we asked the participants to fill valid and reliable the Persian version of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), social support scale, and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36).

FSS is a 9-item questionnaire that is used to assess the severity of fatigue during the past week in various situations. Each question is graded as 1 to 7, where 1 indicates strong disagreement and 7 strong agreements. Summing up all scores will provide the final score. A valid and reliable Persian version was used.[10]

Perceived Social Support is a 12-item questionnaire that assesses different categories of support. Each item is graded from 1 (very strongly disagree) to 7 (very strongly). The final score is obtained by adding all scores. Valid and reliable Persian version was applied.[11]

The SF-36 questionnaire consists of 36 questions in eight aspects. All questions are scored on a scale of 0–100, with 100 representing the highest level of functioning possible. The questionnaire consists of eight subscales such as physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health, role limitations due to emotional problems, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, social functioning, pain, and general health. Higher the score, the better quality of life.[12]

Data regarding age, sex, marital status, education level, and duration of the disease were recorded for all cases.

All data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Data is presented as Mean ± SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured for repeatability, and the ICC coefficient more than 0.70 was considered acceptable. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for the questionnaire to assess the internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 was considered as excellent reliability. Correlation coefficients between MSWDQ score and other scores were calculated. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant.


  Results Top


One hundred and ninety patients were enrolled while only 160 filled questionnaires were collected (response rate = 84.2%). Mean age and mean duration of the disease were 36.8 ± 9.1, and 7.5 ± 5.1, respectively. Basic data are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Basic characteristics of the patients

Click here to view


Mean FSS, social support and MSWDQ scores were 3.9 ± 1.5, 63.5 ± 16.1, and 29.7 ± 17.8, respectively [Table 2].
Table 2: Mean scores of the questionnaires

Click here to view


The Cronbach alpha for psychological/cognitive barriers subscale was 0.87, for Physical barriers was 0.83 and for external barriers was 0.86. The Cronbach alpha for the whole questionnaire 0.89.

All questions had high ICC (>0.7) [Table 3].
Table 3: ICC scores of all questions

Click here to view


There was a significant positive correlation between FSS and MSWDQ score, and a significant correlation with SF-36 and social support [Table 4].
Table 4: Correlation coefficients

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


We aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Persian version of MSWDQ which is developed for work-related problems in patients with MS.

All 23 questions had high ICC which is indicative of valuable the test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the MSWDQ. The Cronbach alpha for the whole questionnaire 0.89 and the Cronbach alpha for subscales was also high.

These findings could show that the internal consistency of the questionnaire is acceptable.

The mean score of whole MSWDQ in our patients was 29.7 ± 17.8 which is similar to the score of Kahraman et al.[13] who enrolled 124 patients with MS in Turkey. Like our findings, they reported higher ICC score for all subscales and also the whole questionnaire.

The questionnaire needs to be stable during the time while correct and true conclusions could be done using the questionnaire.

Honan et al.[8] who develop the questionnaire reported the mean score of the questionnaire as 32.1 ± 18.1 and the mean scores of psychological, physical and external subscales as 29.7, 32.7, and 34. They also reported a positive correlation between Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (r = 0.68) and a negative correlation between Social Support Scale and MSWDQ (r = -0.24) which is in agreement with our findings. We found a significant negative correlation between MSWDQ and socials support as well as the quality of life score. There is also a positive correlation between MSWDQ and FSS which indicates that patients with higher fatigue experience have more work-related problems.

Fatigue is one of the most symptoms in patients with MS, without known etiology, which interferes with quality of life, daily activities, and intellectual functions.[1],[14] This also could affect work life of patients with MS.

Social support is an important issue for patients with MS, which helps them to cope with the disease easily and manage their stress.[15] The social support is one of the crucial items in the quality of life status of the patients.[16]

Quality of life in patients with MS is multidimensional and a wide range of factors influence it. Depression level, anxiety, sleep problems, disability status, and fatigue have important roles.[17] The significant negative correlation between SF-36 and MSWDQ shows that work-related problems affect the quality of life.

Although the number of patients with MS is significantly increasing in recent years, the work-related problems is ignored and most patients may lose their work based on disease complications.

The Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire is a self-administered questionnaire that evaluates the impact of MS on patients' work. The initial version includes 50 questions and the revised version includes 23 questions. There was a need for providing the Persian version of this questionnaire to assess work-related difficulties of Iranian patients with MS.

This study had some limitations. First, it was done in one center. Second, we did not follow the patients to see how they act in their workplace and how they interact with work-related problems.


  Conclusions Top


The Persian version of MSWDQ is a valid and reliable instrument to assess work-related difficulties in patients with MS.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ghajarzadeh M, Jalilian R, Eskandari G, Sahraian MA, Azimi A, Mohammadifar M. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Relationship with disease duration, physical disability, disease pattern, age and sex. Acta Neurol Belg 2013;113:411-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ghajarzadeh M, Azizi S, Moghadasi AN, Sahraian MA, Azimi A, Mohammadifar M, et al. Validity and reliability of the persian version of the PERception de la scle'rose en plaques et de ses pousse'es questionnaire evaluating multiple sclerosis-related quality of life. Int J Prev Med 2016;7:25.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ghajarzadeh M, Jalilian R, Sahraian MA, Moghadasi AN, Azimi A, Mohammadifar M, et al. Pain in patients with multiple sclerosis. Maedica (Bucur) 2018;13:125-30.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Busche K, Fisk J, Murray T, Metz L. Short term predictors of unemployment in multiple sclerosis patients. Can J Neurol Sci 2003;30:137-42.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Schiavolin S, Leonardi M, Giovannetti AM, Antozzi C, Brambilla L, Confalonieri P, et al. Factors related to difficulties with employment in patients with multiple sclerosis: A review of 2002–2011 literature. Int J Rehabil Res 2013;36:105-11.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Schiavolin S, Giovannetti AM, Leonardi M, Brenna G, Brambilla L, Confalonieri P, et al. Multiple sclerosis questionnaire for job difficulties (MSQ-Job): Definition of the cut-off score. Neurol Sci 2016;37:777-80.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Simmons RD. Life issues in multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol 2010;6:603-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Honan CA, Brown RF, Hine DW, Vowels L, Wollin JA, Simmons RD, et al. The multiple sclerosis work difficulties questionnaire. Mult Scler 2012;18:871-80.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Almasi-Hashiani A, Sahraian MA, Eskandarieh S. Evidence of an increased prevalence of multiple sclerosis: A population-based study of Tehran registry during 1999-2018. BMC Neurol 2020;20:169.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Azimian M, Shahvarughi Farahani A, Dadkhah A, Fallahpour M, Karimlu M. Fatigue severity scale: The psychometric properties of the Persian-version in patients with multiple sclerosis. Res J Biol Sci 2009;4:974-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bagherian-Sararoudi R, Hajian A, Ehsan HB, Sarafraz MR, Zimet GD. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support in Iran. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:1277-81.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Montazeri A, Goshtasebi A, Vahdaninia M, Gandek B. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36): Translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Qual Life Res 2005;14:875-82.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kahraman T, Özdoğar AT, Honan CA, Ertekin Ö, Özakbaş S. The multiple sclerosis work difficulties questionnaire: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Turkish and assessment of validity and reliability. Disabil Rehabil 2019;41:2556-62.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ghajarzadeh M, Sahraian MA, Fateh R, Daneshmand A. Fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Med Iran 2012;50:244-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Schwartz C, Frohner R. Contribution of demographic, medical, and social support variables in predicting the mental health dimension of quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis. Health Soc Work 2005;30:203-12.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Krokavcova M, van Dijk JP, Nagyova I, Rosenberger J, Gavelova M, Middel B, et al. Social support as a predictor of perceived health status in patients with multiple sclerosis. Patient Educ Couns 2008;73:159-65.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Lobentanz I, Asenbaum S, Vass K, Sauter C, Klösch G, Kollegger H, et al. Factors influencing quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: Disability, depressive mood, fatigue and sleep quality. Acta Neurol Scand 2004;110:6-13.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed284    
    Printed18    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded42    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]