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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 88

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection-related stigma, depression, anxiety, and stress in Iranian healthcare workers


1 Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases (BRCGL), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Medicine, Quran and Hadith Research center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Resident of Gynecology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Atherosclerosis Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Behavioral sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
7 Department of Radiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
8 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Akbarabadi Teaching Hospital & National Association of Iranian Obstetricians & Gynecologists (NAIGO), Tehran, Iran
9 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Ashraf Karbasi
Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases (BRCGL), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
Mansour Bahardoust
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_12_21

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Background: Psychological conditions aggravate during outbreaks. Here, we have discussed the existing COVID-19 depression, anxiety, and stress and the resulting stigma and its different aspects in Iranian health care workers and their 1st-degree relatives. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, information of our study groups (237 participants including health care workers and their nuclear family members) was collected via two online stigma and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) questionnaires. Results: The DASS questionnaire's mean depression, anxiety, and stress scores were 13.59 ± 5.76, 11.07 ± 4.38, and 15.05 ± 5.86, respectively, in our study population. Marriage status was effective on depression and stress scores. Married participants were having less depression (P = 0.008) but more stressful (P = 0.029) than single ones. Education was found to be effective on anxiety and stress scores. Those with an associate, master, Ph.D., and higher college degrees were significantly less anxious and stressed than those with a diploma or bachelor's degrees (P = 0.032 and 0.016, respectively, for anxiety and stress). Participants with a history of psychiatric conditions showed significantly higher depression, anxiety, and stress rates than those without a past psychiatric condition (P = 0.001). Healthcare workers and their nuclear family members suffer from severe stigma (mean stigma scores were 33.57 and 33.17, respectively). Conclusions: Healthcare workers and their nuclear family members in Iran suffer from severe COVID-19 related stigma. We also showed that depression, anxiety, and stress are common among Iranian Healthcare workers and their nuclear family members during this pandemic. This study showed that people with preexisting psychiatric conditions need extra mental care during the pandemic.


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