• Users Online: 1134
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 137

The slums in the mirror of health: A systematic review analysis from Iran


1 Ph.D. Student of Health Policy, Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D., Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Shahid Beheshty University, Tehran, Iran
3 MSc of Landscape Architecture, Shahid Beheshty University, Tehran, Iran
4 Ph.D. of Epidemiology, Associate Professor, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission16-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance14-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication23-Nov-2022

Correspondence Address:
Niloofar Peykari
Associate Professor, Epidemiology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education; Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Eyvanak St, Qods Town, Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_71_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: One billion worldwide population is living in slum areas that mostly accompanied with high rates of poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, unhealthy situation, and inappropriate health-care services. The prediction of enormous growth of slums by 2030 led to a raise to address the “plight of slums” in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Methods: To address evidence-based health-related priorities, we conducted a systematic review to summarizing evidences on health situations of slums population in Iran. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for published studies without any restriction on age, sex, and language to assess health situations of slums in Iran reported by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. All identified articles were screened, quality assessed, and data extracted by two authors independently. Results: The finding of this systematic review in addition to overall view categorized in five categories: health system, reproductive health, infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors, social issues besides overall situation of Slums. Conclusions: Community-based participatory interventions with socioeconomic approach on modifiable risk factors; active response of health system; establishment new health care centers in slum areas; augmenting the quality of care; active case finding; and elevating health knowledge, attitude, and practice is crucial to achieve SDG's in Slum area.

Keywords: Health, Iran, poverty areas


How to cite this article:
Raoofi A, Amirkhani M, Monjazeb M, Peykari N. The slums in the mirror of health: A systematic review analysis from Iran. Int J Prev Med 2022;13:137

How to cite this URL:
Raoofi A, Amirkhani M, Monjazeb M, Peykari N. The slums in the mirror of health: A systematic review analysis from Iran. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 9];13:137. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2022/13/1/137/361868




  Background Top


Over the past decades, rapid urbanization was accompanied by the slums expansion, mainly in large in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).[1] Slum inhabitants are often vulnerable in comparison to other areas,[2] and morbidity and mortality for several health problems are worse in slum residents than other populations, due to relative poverty, lack of security, lack of financial resources, and lack of political commitment.[3] Slumming is usually seen as a “breeding ground” for social problems, such as crime, drug and alcohol addiction, high rates of mental diseases as well as suicide.[4] A study revealed that morbidity rate in slum area was higher than other area with better socioeconomic status.[5] Also, the other studies demonstrated slums people in the less-developed countries faced major problems of child health related to access to safe water and sanitation,[6] and more infant or child mortality and also infectious diseases.[7],[8] Accordingly, by the rapid growth of slums in LMICs, we need to reduce health inequity and promote environmental and health status particularly in slum and disadvantaged areas in middle east.[9]

In Iran, slums expand by growing urbanization and hosting several thousand migrants from rural areas to large cities.[10],[11] Unfortunately, the poverty, unemployment rate, and maternal and neonatal mortality rates in slum area were higher than urban area of Iran.[12] Also, risky behavior, and infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and sexually transmitted diseases was more obvious in disadvantaged area in Iran.[13] Despite many advancements in deprived areas in Iran, such as access to safe water, primary health care, and social services, there is need to specific interventions.[14],[15]

So, there is need to urgent action to reverse their current situation. To make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable as a sustainable development goal.[16] We should be implement appropriate interventions to improve slums health. In this way, we must find ways to motivate key local policy makers for partnership and resource mobilization to improve health outcomes in slums. As, slum-specific health priorities might be different from the national or even urban area,[17] this review aimed to provide an inclusive picture of slum's health-related situations in Iran based on conducted studies for implementing all interventions for all outcomes that it does have.


  Methods Top


This systematic review followed the aim of study to create a comprehensive and reliable evidence for health-related conditions contributing to slums in Iran.

Terms' definition

Slums defined as “a densely populated usually urban area marked by crowding, dirty run-down housing, poverty, and social disorganization.”[17] and the World Health Organization defined human health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”[18]

Data sources and search strategy

We carried out a systematic search among three international databases; PubMed/Medline, Institute of Scientific Information, and Scopus. In addition, as the study setting in this systematic review was Iran, we searched three national bibliography databases; IranMedex, Scientific Information Database, and Irandoc from 1990 to 2019, but without language restriction and limitation on sex and age.

To obtain the most comprehensive and efficient results, we searched these data sources using Medical Subject Headings terms, Emtree, and related keywords. Moreover, in national databases, we considered related Persian keywords in addition to English search terms. In search strategy, we considered “Poverty Area*” OR suburban OR ghetto* OR shant OR shack* OR bidonville* OR bustee* OR bosti* OR squat* OR “informal settlement” OR barrada OR “barrio baja” OR taudi* OR “irregular settlement” OR “informal housing” OR favela OR basti besides slums OR slum. Geographic area limited to Iran by considering various related search words, such as Iran, I.R. Iran, Iranian, and Persia. To achievement additional studies, we reviewed manually the references and citations of relevant articles. In this way, we included primary studies identified from searching the references from other review articles identified in the search that fitted inclusion criteria. All kinds of published studies performed in Iran related to slums health were included. We included related studies to health of slum involving various aspects of health of urban slum dwellers. The full electronic search strategy in PubMed present in [Table 1].
Table 1: Search strategy in PubMed

Click here to view


Study selection and data collection process

At the first stage of study selection process, the two reviewers read the titles and abstracts independently. If they did not related to our study objectives, then these articles excluded. We included original articles. To achieve comprehensive results, review articles considered for backward and forward assessment of their references and citations. Qualitative studies, letters, editorial, and all of other article types were excluded.

In second stage, for all of included articles, full texts reviewed by two independent reviewers for quality assessment and data extraction. In cases of difference between reviewers, the third reviewer resolved discrepancy.

Quality assessment and data extraction

For quality assessment of included articles, we used the critical appraisal skills program checklists.[19] The assessment conducted by two independent reviewers. Discrepancies have resolved by a third reviewer. Risk of biases assessed in individual studies based on mentioned tool.

Data extraction sheet was designed including two main parts of; study characteristics', and extracted data. The study characteristics sheet contained; article's specifications, corresponding author's characteristics, study's method, and study's quality scale. The data extraction sheet also, contains detailed information on prevalence of outcome, Odds ratio (OR), main conclusion, and comments. In [Figure 1], the process of study selection and data collection process reported according to PRISMA Flow Diagram.[20]
Figure 1: PRISMA flow diagram

Click here to view


Data synthesis

We systematically categorize results according to various aspects of health in slums. So in this review, each aspect of results summarized and presented in different tables.

Ethical consideration

As this study is a systematic review, it did not need to ethical approval. Regarding ethical consideration in this study, we cited all scientific documents.


  Results Top


Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, of 126 articles, 78 abstracts screened and consequently 25 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction [Figure 1]. All retrieved articles published in English or Persian language and related to 1990 to 2019. Three interventional study, a historical cohort study, a case control study, a descriptive analysis of information in health centers, two data analysis of referral system and screening, and remained article by 18 cross sectional study bring out this systematic review results. All studies were at sub-national level. Except two studies that use information of referral systems, the others targeted households or individual people live in suburban and slums area. In general, present result attributed to 1769 household, 35918 individuals (4164 children), and 374 peoples attempt to suicide. Eight studies focused on female sex and the remained considered both sex. In included articles, health-related subjects were studied. Therefore, we categorized them according to their main theme in seven categories; Quality of life, Reproductive health, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors, Mental health, Social health, and Health system. The result of one article present in three categories. The details of results presented in [Table 2].
Table 2: Health Related Issues in Slums

Click here to view


Quality of life

Four articles address quality of life in slums of Kermanshah and Hamadan. Their participants' recruitment was done through random sampling methods. They were young-adult. Two studies focused on female sex and the others considered both sex.[21],[22],[23],[24]

The studies revealed that women worried about their security and health. The woman reported the health-related quality of life factors in slums were not acceptable they need to improve physical, and environmental health. The other study on women demonstrated one fifth of participants were not satisfied from their leisure time. Unavailability of facilities and their economic situation led to unpleasant leisure time for them.[22],[23]

The studies on both sexes shown the slum residence have not been satisfied with physical environment. Also, the slums had concern about their social and environmental situation. They need to socio-environmental promotion, socioeconomic status improvement, and their awareness increment related to quality of life. Comparison the mean scores of health-related quality of life subscales revealed the mean score in mental health was lower than general health (58.67 vs. 60.41).[22],[24]

Reproductive health

From three studies categorized in reproductive health subject, two cases related to child health and the other one was about women health. A case–control study in slum area of Ardabil revealed that the important cause of death among neonates was prematurity and congenital abnormality. There was association between neonatal mortality and parents' education, income, and smoking of father.[25]

A study showed beneficial impact of improving health literacy on intervention regards health-promoting behaviors.[45]

A study in Shiraz demonstrated about 5% of the eligible women use contraceptive method, and about 50% of slums women screened by pap smear test. About one third of pregnant women had not receive prenatal and postpartum care. The most important reason of this situation was low awareness of women, and low access of them to health services in slum area.[15]

Communicable diseases

Three studies in slums area of Gorgan and Mashad, and Shiraz performed through a screening data analysis, a descriptive study on health centers information, and a cross sectional study, respectively. These studies showed tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in slums of Gorgan was 17.5 per 100000. In addition, they revealed living area situation such as living near major traffic arteries correlate with risk of TB in Mashad.[28],[29]

The other study in Shiraz showed the prevalence of leishmaniosis in slum area was 8.5% witch one third of them referred to public health sector. Also, HIV infection was important issue in this area, but 18.6% of slum residential had poor knowledge about prevention of HIV/AIDS.[15]

Non-communicable diseases and their risk factors

Three cross-sectional studies by participation women of slum area address the risk factors of NCDs. These studies showed unhealthy life style and unsuitable health status of slum dwellers women. Among them, inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, low physical activity, and smoking were considerable health problems in slums of Bandar-abbas, Zahedan, and Tehran.[31],[32],[34]

A community based intervention in suburb residence of Yasouj showed the effect of nutrition education and physical activity promotion on decreasing FBS, HbA1C, TG and cholesterol significantly.[33]

Mental health

A cross sectional study in suburb area of Tehran showed the inhabitants preferred receiving help from friends. In addition, most of them had concern about cost of mental health services. The other study in Tehran demonstrates 67.1% of Self-burning suicide cases were residents in suburban areas. Self-burning suicide was frequent in females, youth, and who had low level education. Socioeconomic factors could be determinants of mental health status.[35],[36]

Social health

A cross sectional study in households living in suburb of Ardabil demonstrates the most prevalent social harms in this area was addiction, and stealing.[38] Another study in Qom showed health indicators measure was lower in illiterate slums than educated people. There is correlation between social support and social health.[37]

Health system

A comprehensive study in Fars province on 372 household slums showed one fifth of them has not access to health centers. Health care coverage among them was about 10%. The essential source of health information in slums was radio. Although, health workers had inconspicuous role in informing slums peoples. Inadequate awareness of slums' inhabitants about health care facilities was the main barrier of their utilization. But, vaccination coverage among children of this area was 98%.[15]

The other studies about vaccination in slums settled in Kermanshah, Tehran, Esfahan, Arak, Mashhad, and Zahedan. These studies showed the most important reason for delay in vaccination was unawareness of parents about the time and necessity of vaccination. Delay in vaccination mostly occurred for MMR vaccination at 18 months. There is positive correlation between on-time vaccination and parents' educational level.[40],[41],[42],[46]

The other study in Kerman demonstrate, 21% of people who required outpatient services and 31% of people who needed hospitalization were able to use these services. In slums of Karaj, a cross sectional study by participation of married woman showed they need to nutritional and psychological consultation.[43]


  Discussion Top


The considerable growth of urbanization in Iran[47] led to slums growth impulsively[1] that has not been matched by knowledge production in this area. In this systematic review, we tried to cover all relevant studies in Iran to summarize the evidence on different aspects of Iranian slums' health status. Our study verified the relationship between socioeconomic factors and health status based on included studies. Unfortunately, they fall to worse health situation because of poverty and unawareness.[1]

In this regards, the other study reported that poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, low incomes, unfavorable living conditions, inappropriate housing, lack of security are the main characteristics of informal settlement in slum areas.[48] So, implementation of interventions by socio-cultural approach, and raise their awareness about health could be promote their situation.[49]

Reproductive health is one of the most important issues in slums health. This systematic review revealed the association between neonatal mortality and parents' education, income, and father's smoking.[25] Also the correlation between child nutrition status and their mother's education status was shown.[45] Unfortunately, low access to reproductive health services and low awareness of women about these services led to low utilization of them.[15] Accordingly, improvement reproductive health services and develop appropriate interventions by considering cultural issues recommended in slum area.[50]

Our study showed incidence rate of TB,[28],[29] prevalence of leshmaniasis, and the importance of HIV infection in slums.[15] The other studies emphasized on mosquito-borne diseases and Ebola in poverty.[51],[52] A study indicate determined socioeconomic inequalities in infectious diseases.[53] Now, by COVID-19 pandemic, we worried about this novel corona virus epidemic in slum area. Consequently, we should plan to control disease by train and set up community health workers in slum area and utilization previous experiences about communicable diseases.[54]

In addition to infectious diseases, inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, low physical activity, and smoking exposed slums to risk of NCDs.[31],[32],[34] A study in Brazil demonstrated slum residents had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, overweight/obesity, and smoking compared to the general population.[55] Another study Bangladesh showed all NCDs risk factors are high among the urban slum adults.[56] Therefore, we need appropriate action plan for this population.[57]

In addition to NCDs, mental health is an essential issue in this areas, especially in women and youth.[35],[36] A cross-sectional Study among teenage girls living in urban slums in India revealed more than half of them had high levels of anxiety, depression, or psychological distress.[58] These situations could be modified through participatory community-based interventions.[59] There is some people who needed inpatient or outpatient services, but they were not able to use the services.[43] Multi-sectoral approach in establishment new health care centers, augmentation the quality of health care, developing counseling centers, and elevating health literacy among slum dwellers constitute major strategies that should be adopted in order to combat this challenges.[57],[60],[61]

In our knowledge, it was the first time that health status of slum dwellers in Iran has been reviewed systematically, but we faced to some limitations. The present study was dependent on validity and the applicability of its results to the quality of the initial included studies that considered by precise quality assessment. Because of data scarcity, variations in studied groups, differences in living areas, and inconsistency of the measures, we could not statistically compare and aggregate the results, but we summarize the information in different categories.


  Conclusions Top


Our findings could provide practical evidence about health situations of slums in Iran for better policy making and more detailed studies in this area. This important health issue required special attention of the government and policymakers to implement community-based interventions by socioeconomic and cultural approach to improve slums situation,[48],[50] and we proposed health problem solving based on each community priorities.[62]

List of abbreviations

  • LMICs: Low and Middle-income Countries
  • STD: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • SDG: Sustainable Development Goal
  • WHO: World Health Organization
  • ISI: Institute of Scientific Information
  • SID: Scientific Information Database
  • MeSH: Medical Subject Headings
  • CASP: Critical Appraisal Skills Program
  • OR: Odds Ratio
  • RII: Relative Index of Inequity
  • TB: Tuberculosis



  Declarations Top


Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ezeh A, Oyebode O, Satterthwaite D, Chen Y-F, Ndugwa R, Sartori J, et al. The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums. Lancet 2017;389:547-58.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sahandi IJ. An analysis to challenges of management system in slum upgrading projects of Iran. In: Zhang M, editor. Construction and Project Management, Iccpm 2011. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research. 152011. p. 161-5. <Go to ISI>://WOS: 000392456000031.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sclar ED, Garau P, Carolini G. The 21st century health challenge of slums and cities. Lancet 2005;365:901-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
United Nations. The Millennium Development Goals Report. New York: UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs; 2007 June. Available from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/mdg2007.pdf.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Skordis-Worrall J, Pace N, Bapat U, Das S, More NS, Joshi W, et al. Maternal and neonatal health expenditure in Mumbai slums (India): A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2011;11:150.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
World Health Organization ROftEM. Building the knowledge base on the social determinants of health: Review of seven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. 2008.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jorgenson AK, Rice J. Urban slum growth and human health: A panel study of infant and child mortality in less-developed countries, 1990–2005. J Poverty 2010;14:382-402.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kyobutungi C, Ezeh AC, Zulu E, Falkingham J. HIV/AIDS and the health of older people in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: Results from a cross sectional survey. BMC Public Health 2009;9:153.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
World Health Organization ROftEM. Message from Dr Hussein A. Gezairy Regional Director WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the Intercountry meeting on health and development in slum areas, using the community-based initiatives approach and urban health equity assessment and response tool in collaboration with WHO centre for health development, Kobe, Japan, Cairo, Egypt, September 27-29, 2010.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kahkesh FH. Monitoring the Situation of Slum Dweller, Face of Urban Poverty the Case of Mallashieh-Iran. 2011.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Lotfi K. Slum development in Ahvaz with emphasis on the All-E-Saffi sector. Sustainable City III: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability. Advances in Architecture Series. 182004. p. 103-10.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Asadi-Lari M, Farshad AA, Assaei SE, Vaez Mahdavi MR, Akbari ME, Ameri A, et al. Applying a basic development needs approach for sustainable and integrated community development in less-developed areas: Report of ongoing Iranian experience. Public Health 2005;119:474-82.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Razzaghi EM, Movaghar AR, Green TC, Khoshnood K. Profiles of risk: A qualitative study of injecting drug users in Tehran, Iran. Harm Reduct J 2006;3:12.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Joulaei H, Lankarani KB, Shahbazi M. Iranian and American health professionals working together to address health disparities in Mississippi Delta based on Iran's Health House model. Arch Iran Med 2012;15:378-80.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Joulaei H, Bhuiyan AR, Sayadi M, Morady F, Afsar Kazerooni P. Slums' access to and coverage of primary health care services: A cross-sectional study in Shiraz, a metropolis in southern Iran. Iran J Med Sci 2014;39 (2 Suppl):184-90.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
United Nations Human Settlements Programme. The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. London, UK: UN Habitat [and] Earthscan; 2003. 1-345 p. Availabe from: https://unhabitat.org/books/the-challenge-of-slums-global -report-on-human-settlements-2003/.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Khayatzadeh-Mahani A, Sedoghi Z, Mehrolhassani MH, Yazdi-Feyzabadi V. How health in all policies are developed and implemented in a developing country? A case study of a HiAP initiative in Iran. Health Promot Int 2016;31:769-81.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Radovic V, Kekovic Z, Agic S. Development a comprehensive food safety system in serbia- A narrative review article. Iran J Public Health 2014;43:889-902.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
CASP Appraisal Checklists. Available from: https://casp-uk.net/casp-tools-checklists/.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 2009;6:e1000097.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Rajabi Gilan N, Ghasemi S, Reshadat S, Zanganeh S, Saedi S. Measurement quality of life associated with the health of women in the marginal slums of Kermanshah and some factors associated with it. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 2014;18:547-56.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Sajadzadeh H, Lotfi A, Shahbazi M. Evaluating the quality of life dimensions in marginal urban communities to take advantage of development stimulus projects, case study: Dizaj town of Hamedan. Armanshahr 2017;10:121-31.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Ghasemi R, Rjabi Gilan N, Reshadat S, Tavangar F, Saedi S, Soofi M. Quality of leisure time in women resident in marginal neighborhoods and its relation with health related quality of life. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2015;24:14-24.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Ghasemi SR, Zangeneh A, Rajabi-Gilan N, Reshadat S, Saeidi S, Ziapour A. Health-related quality of life in informal settlements in Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran: Role of poverty and perception of family socioeconomic status. East Mediterr Health J 2019;25:775-83.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Barak M, Sadeghieh Ahari S, Amani F, Asadi G, Rahimi G, Khadem E. Causatives and risk factors for deaths among infants under 1 year old in Ardabil slums during 2008-2009. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 2012;12(5):40-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Keyghobadi K, Siasi F, Malek Afzali H, Jar Elahi N, Sadrzade H, Moatabar A, et al. Impacts of mothers' education on the nutritional status of children among households living in outskirts of Kerman. Hakim Res J 2002;5:49-56.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Asefzadeh S, Jouafshani MA, Samieefard F, Kalantari Z. Situation analysis of the health of AB. Gilack slum area of Qazvin. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2001;42-51.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Hoseinpoor R, Karami M, Mohammadi Y, Soltanian A. Evaluation of Active Case Finding (ACF) of tuberculosis in slums population in north of Iran. Int J Pediatr 2017;5:4867-75.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Saberifar R. Effective environmental and demographic factors on incidence of tuberculosis in Mashhad, Iran. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2017;27:404-8.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Ghahremani L, Azizi M, Moemenbellah-Fard MD, Ghaem H. Malaria preventive behaviors among housewives in suburbs of Bandar-Abbas City, south of Iran: Interventional design based on PRECEDE model. Pathog Glob Health 2019;113:32-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Khayat S, Dolatian M, Navidian A, Kasaeian A, Mahmoodi Z. Association between style of living and general health in suburban women: A cross-sectional study in south east of Iran. J Clin Diagn Res 2017;11:LC09-13.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Esmailnasab N, Salehiniya H, Hatamian S, Ghoncheh M. Lifestyle and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risk factors in women aged 30 to 60 years in Tehran, Iran. Res. J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2016;7:1435-40.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Yazdanpanah B, Safari M, Yazdanpanah S, Angha P, Karami M, Emadi M, et al. The effect of participatory community-based diabetes cares on the control of diabetes and its risk factors in western suburb of Yasouj, Iran. Health Educ Res 2012;27:794-803.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Faghir Ganji M, Asgari E, Jabbari M, Nematollahi S, Hosseini M, Ahmadi-Gharaei H, et al. Community health assessment: Knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding water-pipe smoking in Bandar Abbas. MethodsX 2019;6:442-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Ghadirian L, Sayarifard A. Depression literacy in urban and suburban residents of Tehran, the Capital of Iran; recognition, help seeking and stigmatizing attitude and the predicting factors. Int J Prev Med 2019;10:134.  Back to cited text no. 35
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
36.
Taghaddosinejad F, Sheikhazadi A, Behnoush B, Reshadati J, Anary SHS. A survey of suicide by burning in Tehran, Iran. Acta Med Iran 2010;48:266-72.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Mahdi A, Pourahmad A, Hataminezhad H. The study and analysis of health-life and availability of health indicators in slum neighborhoods case study: District of Shadgholikhan in QOM city. J Geography Planning 2014;18:259-93.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Darvishi Y. Marginalization and its role in the occurrence and spread of drugs and addiction (Case study: Ardebil). Hum Geog Res 2014;46:603-14.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Nourbakhsh Y, Heidarkhani H, Mohammadi A. Investigating the relationship between social support and underlying variables with social health of young people in marginalized areas of Kermanshah. Iranian Journal of Social Problems. 2017;8:233-57.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Zahraei M KN, Mohammadi N. Vaccination coverage in 24 to 36 months old children at marginalized area of Kermanshah. IJIDTM 2015;20:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Rejali M, Mohammadbeigi A, Mokhtari M, Zahraei SM, Eshrati B. Timing and delay in children vaccination; evaluation of expanded program of immunization in outskirt of Iranian cities. J Res Health Sci 2015;15:54-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Jadidi R, Mohammadbeigi A, Mohammadsalehi N, Ansari H, Ghaderi E. Inequity in timeliness of MMR vaccination in children living in the suburbs of Iranian cities. Int J Biomed Sci 2015;11:93-8.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Amiresmaili M, Yazdi-Feyzabadi V, Heidarijamebozorgi M. Health services utilization among slum dwellers: An experience from Iran. J Educ Health Promot 2019;8:210.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Farid M, Tizvir A, Fashi Z. Health care status of residents of the slum areas of Karaj 2015. Alborz Univ Med Sci J 2017;6:276-82.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Tavakoly Sany, SB, Doosti H, Mahdizadeh M, Orooji A, Peyman N, The Health Literacy Status and Its Role in Interventions in Iran: A Systematic and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021;18:4260.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Fard FA. Limiting the imbalanced development of large cities by granting immediate accessibility to Amenities in suburban region case study: Rasht city. AJBAS 2011;5:405-19.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Morris T, Hanlon C, Wee LH, Teo EW, Adnan Y, Brolan CE, et al. Universal health coverage's evolving location in the post-2015 development agenda: Key informant perspectives within multilateral and related agencies during the first phase of post-2015 negotiations. Springerplus 2016;31:514-26.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Khayat S, Dolatian M, Navidian A, Mahmoodi Z, Sharifi N, Kasaeian A. Lifestyles in suburban populations: A systematic review. Electron Physician 2017;9:4791-800.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Peykari N, Djalalinia S, Qorbani M, Sobhani S, Farzadfar F, Larijani B. Socioeconomic inequalities and diabetes: A systematic review from Iran. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2015;14:8.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Lilford RJ, Oyebode O, Satterthwaite D, Melendez-Torres GJ, Chen YF, Mberu B, et al. Improving the health and welfare of people who live in slums. Lancet 2017;389:559-70.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Wu C, Guo X, Zhao J, Lv Q, Li H, McNeil EB, et al. Behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases among different ethnic minority groups along the China-Laos border areas. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017;14:1227.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Fallah MP, Skrip LA, Gertler S, Yamin D, Galvani AP. Quantifying poverty as a driver of Ebola transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015;9:e0004260.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Pini A, Stenbeck M, Galanis I, Kallberg H, Danis K, Tegnell A, et al. Socioeconomic disparities associated with 29 common infectious diseases in Sweden, 2005-14: An individually matched case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 2019;19:165-76.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Corburn J, Vlahov D, Mberu B, Riley L, Caiaffa WT, Rashid SF, et al. Slum health: Arresting COVID-19 and improving well-being in urban informal settlements. J Urban Health 2020;97:348-57.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Snyder RE, Rajan JV, Costa F, Lima H, Calcagno JI, Couto RD, et al. Differences in the prevalence of non-communicable disease between slum dwellers and the general population in a large urban area in Brazil. Trop Med Infect Dis 2017;2:47.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Rawal LB, Biswas T, Khandker NN, Saha SR, Bidat Chowdhury MM, Khan ANS, et al. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS One 2017;12:e0184967.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Peykari N, Hashemi H, Dinarvand R, Haji-Aghajani M, Malekzadeh R, Sadrolsadat A, et al. National action plan for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in Iran; a response to emerging epidemic. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017;16:3.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Rani D, Singh JK, Acharya D, Paudel R, Lee K, Singh SP. Household food insecurity and mental health among teenage girls living in urban slums in Varanasi, India: A cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15:1585.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Eftekhari MB, Mirabzadeh A, Forouzan AS, Dejman M, Afzali HM, Djalalinia S, et al. A qualitative study of community-based health programs in Iran: An experience of participation in I.R. Iran. Int J Prev Med 2014;5:679-86.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Peykari N, Larijani B. A multi-sectoral approach to combatting non-communicable diseases: Iran's experience. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2019;18:719-20.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Danaei G, Farzadfar F, Kelishadi R, Rashidian A, Rouhani OM, Ahmadnia S, et al. Iran in transition. Lancet 2019;393:1984-2005.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Unger A, Riley LW. Slum health: From understanding to action. PLoS Med 2007;4:e295.  Back to cited text no. 62
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Background
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
Declarations
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed104    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded9    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]