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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 63

Role of cystatin C in predicting disease activity and flare-up in systemic lupus erythematosus: A longitudinal follow-up study

1 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Surgery, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, New York, USA

Correspondence Address:
Alimohammad Fatemi
Associate Professor of Rheumatology, Rheumatology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_619_20

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Background: We aimed to determine the sensitivity of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) in predicting lupus flare-up. Methods: In a longitudinal study, 77 patients were followed-up for up to 15 months. Cys-C, physician global assessment (PGA), and lupus activity index (SLEDAI) were recorded during each visit. Flare-up was defined as an increase ≥4 scores in SLEDAI compared to the last visit. The predictability of flare-up by Cys-C was evaluated by generalized linear-mixed effect model (GLMM) and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Predictive power of Cys-C, SLEDAI, and PGA was compared by the area under the curves (AUC) and application of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Lupus flare-up was observed in 14 out of 77 patients on the 1st visit, 3 out of 41 patients on the 2nd visit, 2 out of 26 patients on the 3rd visit, 1 out of 14 patients on the 4th visit, and 1 out of 3 patients on the 5th visit. Mean Cys-C levels in patients with flare-up vs. those with no flare-up in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd visits were 1769 vs. 1603 (P = 0.6), 5701 vs. 2117 (p = 0.2) and 1409 vs. 1731 (p = 0.9), respectively. Cys-C had lower predictive power than PGA and SLEDAI for either flare-up, active nephritis or SLEDAI in GLMM/GEE models. Cys-C also showed lower sensitivity (AUC = 0.701, 95%CI = 0.579-0.823, P = 0.003) than PGA and SLEDAI, to distinguish patients prone to flare-ups. Conclusions: Although Cys-C had some sensitivity for predicting flare-up, active nephritis or SLEDAI, its sensitivity was lower than that in PGA and SLEDAI.

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