|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 40
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Smyrniopsis aucheri in animal models
Valiollah Hajhashemi1, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi2, Maram Hasani1
1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Submission||19-Sep-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||09-Mar-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||19-May-2021|
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The fruits of Apiaceae family have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of wild celery (Smyrniopsis aucheri) seeds, as a member of the Apiaceae family. Methods: Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of seeds were prepared and for the evaluation of analgesic activity, acetic acid, formalin, and hotplate tests in male mice (20–30 g) and for anti-inflammatory assessment carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice were used. Results: Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts (100–400 mg/kg) significantly reduced abdominal spasms in the acetic acid test. In the formalin test, the hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the pain of the chronic phase while hexane extract was effective in both acute and chronic phases. In the hot plate test, both extracts were ineffective. In the carrageenan and croton tests, both extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly reduced edema. Conclusions: The results revealed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of plant seed extracts. Due to the lack of response of the extracts in the hot plate test, it seems that the plant mainly has a peripheral analgesic effect.
Keywords: Acetic acid test, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, carrageenan test, croton oil, formalin test, nociception tests, Smyrniopsis aucheri
|How to cite this article:|
Hajhashemi V, Sajjadi SE, Hasani M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Smyrniopsis aucheri in animal models. Int J Prev Med 2021;12:40
|How to cite this URL:|
Hajhashemi V, Sajjadi SE, Hasani M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Smyrniopsis aucheri in animal models. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 2];12:40. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2021/12/1/40/316207
| Introduction|| |
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are widely used to control pain.,, Gastrointestinal disorders, gastric bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular problems are some of the complications of NSAIDs. The opioids also have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, dependence, and tolerance. For this reason, the use of herbal medications with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties is increasing. Several plants of Apiaceae family including Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum persicum, Coriandrum sativum, Bunium persicum and Apium graveolens, and Carum copticum have shown anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.,,,,, Kelussia odoratissima, A. graveolens, and wild celery (Smyrniopsis aucheri) are the three species of celery.
Anti-inflammatory effects were reported for K. odoratissima in the acute colitis induced by acetic acid and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats., This plant has also been used traditionally for colics and gastrointestinal disorders. Apium graveolens is also effective in suppression of pain and inflammation. Based on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of K. odoratissima and A. graveolens, this study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of wild celery (S. aucheri) in animal models.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Materials and chemicals
Carrageenan and croton oil (Sigma, USA), acetic acid and formalin (Merck, Germany) were used in this study. Smyrniopsis aucheri seeds were purchased from Pakan Bazr Company (Isfahan, Iran).
Preparation of the hydroalcoholic extract
Plant seeds weighed and then ground. Ethanol (80%) was added to the powder (with a 3 to 7 ratio), and the mixture was kept in the laboratory for 48 h. After that, the solution was filtered three times using a Buchner funnel, and the resulting extract was subsequently dried and condensed using a rotary device.,
Preparation of the hexane extract
One hundred grams of powdered wild celery seeds was soaked in 600-mL hexane for 48 h. Then the solution was filtered by a Buchner funnel and evaporated using a rotary device.
Male Swiss mice (20–30 g) and male Wistar rats (180–220 g) were used. Animals housed under standard conditions with 12/12 h light-dark cycles with free access to water and food. The animals were transferred to the laboratory 2 days before starting the experiments to acclimatize to the test environment. Animal procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IR.MUI.REC.1396.3.506).
Acetic acid test
Five groups of male mice (n = 6) received vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline), different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic or hexane extracts, or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 30 min, 1% acetic acid (v/v) was injected i.p. and 10 min later, the abdominal spasm was counted for 10 min.
Formalin (20 μL) was injected in the animal's right paw subcutaneously 30 min after i.p. injection of vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline), each extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or morphine (10 mg/kg). The paw licking time was measured at 0–5 and 20–40 min after the injection of formalin.
Hot plate test
A hot plate (55°C) was used for the induction of pain in this test. At the beginning of the evaluation, the time it took for the animal to respond to pain was recorded as the control latency. Two groups of mice (n = 6) received hydroalcoholic, or hexane extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg i.p. The standard group received morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). After the injection of drugs, the reaction time of the animal was measured every 30 min for 2 h, and the analgesia was calculated.
Vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline, 1 mL/Kg, i.p.) was injected to animals of control group. Two groups of male rats (n = 6) received either hydroalcoholic or hexane extract (400 mg/kg, i.p.). The fourth group (reference group) received indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Six animals were included in each group. Thirty minutes later, 100 μL of carrageenan (1% w/v) was injected into the right paw of the animals. The volume of the rat paw was measured using a plethysmograph (Ugo Basil, Italy) just before the injection of carrageenan and 4 h after that and the difference between the paw volumes was reported as an index of edema.
Control animals received (1% Tween 80 in normal saline, 10 mL/Kg, i.p.) and test animals received either hydroalcoholic or hexane extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p.). Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected as the standard drug. Thirty minutes later, 20 μL of croton oil solution was applied to the inner part of the animal's right ear. After 6 h, the animals were sacrificed and disc samples with 6 mm diameter were prepared from both ears. The discs were weighed and the difference between the weights of the left and right disks was reported as ear edema.
Data were expressed as mean ± SEM and group differences were analyzed by oneway ANOVA followed by Scheffe post hoc. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant.
| Results|| |
From 100 g of powdered wild celery seeds, 23 g of condensed hydroalcoholic extract and 19 g of condensed hexane extract were obtained.
In the acetic acid test, both hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of wild celery seed at all doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of abdominal spasms. A dose of 10 mg/kg of indomethacin reduced the number of abdominal spasms by 87.5% [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
|Figure 1: Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of S. aucheri on the abdominal spasm induced by acetic acid in mice. The vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline), hydroalcoholic extract, and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the injection of 1% acetic acid (10 mL/kg). The values represent the mean ± SEM of abdominal spasms. ***P < 0.001 compared to the control group (oneway ANOVA followed by Scheffe post hoc)|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Effect of hexane extracts of S. aucheri on the abdominal spasm induced by acetic acid in mice. The vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline), hydroalcoholic extract, and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the injection of 1% acetic acid (10 mL/kg). The values represent the mean ± SEM of abdominal spasms. ***P < 0.001 compared to the control group (oneway ANOVA followed by Scheffe post hoc)|
Click here to view
In the formalin test, the hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in acute phase, but in the chronic phase, the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the time of licking and reduced pain.
In this test, the hexane extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) and morphine (10 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced paw licking time in both acute and chronic phases [Table 1].
|Table 1: Effect of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of S. aucheri on formalin-induced licking behavior|
Click here to view
In the hot plate test, neither hydroalcoholic nor hexane extracts demonstrated any significant analgesic effects (Data not shown).
In the carrageenan test, both hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg decreased inflammation (P < 0.01). Indomethacin as the standard drug (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced paw inflammation by 80.2% [Figure 3].
|Figure 3: Effect of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of S. aucheri on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat. The control group received the vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline, 10 mL/kg), the test groups received a dose of 400 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic and hexane extract, and the standard cgroup received indomethacin (10 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Thirty minutes later, 1% carrageenan (W/V) at a dose of 100 μL was injected subcutaneously into the paws of the rats and paw volume was measured at 0 and 4 h after the injection. Data show mean ± SEM of paw edema (n = 6). **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 compared to the control group (oneway ANOVA followed by Scheffe post hoc)|
Click here to view
In the croton test, both hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts significantly reduced inflammation and edema only at a dose of 400 mg/kg so that compared with control group, they inhibited ear edema by 44.3% and 74.6%, respectively (P < 0.05 for hexane extract and P < 0.001 for hydroalcoholic extract). Indomethacin also at a dose of 10 mg/kg reduced the inflammation and the edema of the animal's ear by 77.9% [Figure 4].
|Figure 4: Effect of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of S. aucheri on croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. Thirty minutes after vehicle (1% Tween 80 in normal saline) or drug treatments, croton oil (5 mg/mL, 20 μL) was applied to the inner surface of the right ear of mice. After 6 h animals were sacrificed and discs with a diameter of 6 mm were cut from both ears and weighed. The values represent the mean ± SEM (n = 6). *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001 compared to the control group (oneway ANOVA followed by Scheffe post hoc)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In this study, S. aucheri seeds showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The acetic acid, formalin and hotplate tests were used to evaluate the analgesic effect.
In the acetic acid test, both hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of the plant's seed were able to reduce the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal spasms significantly.
In this non-specific test, many drugs such as opioids, antihistamines, NSAIDs, and clonidine display a positive response. This test is considered as a good animal model for visceral pain, and the results of this study demonstrate that the seeds of S. aucheri have a good potential for controlling visceral pain such as stomachaches, intestinal and renal colic.
Formalin test, which is a model for chronic pain, is a biphasic test. The initial phase (0–5 min) is induced by the stimulation of receptors and the transmission of signals by A delta fibers. The second phase is an inflammatory response and the pain is transmitted by C fibers. Our results demonstrated that in the first phase, only hexane extract reduced formalin-induced neurogenic pain significantly (P < 0.01). In the second phase, both hexane and hydroalcoholic extracts reduced pain effectively (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Investigations have shown that drugs with central analgesic effects, such as opioids (morphine), can inhibit both phases of the formalin test, but medications that have peripheral analgesic effect only inhibit the second phase (inflammatory phase)., Based on the results of the second phase of the formalin test, which is an inflammatory phase, and considering the anti-inflammatory effect of these two extracts in the carrageenan test, it is likely that the analgesic effect occurs because of the inhibition of inflammation.
Hot plate test is a proper technique to evaluate drugs that have central analgesic effects. Due to the lack of response of both extracts in this test it seems that the plant does not appear to have a central analgesic effect.
GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of the wild celery showed that its major components are alpha-bisabolol (19.91%), alpha-pinene (15.10%), and beta-pinene (6.58%).
According to the study of Santos et al. (1998) alpha-pinene (400 mg/kg) has an analgesic effect in the formalin test. The alpha-pinene content in the wild celery essential oil was reported to be 15.10% and probably has a crucial role in the analgesic effect of wild celery.
The anti-inflammatory effect of the wild celery seeds was studied through carrageenan and croton tests. The increase in paw volume seen shortly after the administration of carrageenan is due to release of histamine. The secretion of prostaglandins and leukocyte migration are involved later. In carrageenan test both hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts had an anti-inflammatory effect. Croton test also confirmed the results of carrageenan test.
Drugs inhibit inflammation through many underlying mechanisms, including the inhibition of the arachidonic acid metabolism, inhibition of the prostaglandin synthesis, inhibition of the histamine release, etc. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of the wild celery seeds is unclear, and further studies should be undertaken to unveil the mechanism of action.
Some studies also suggest that flavonoids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects with the mechanism of inhibiting the enzyme producing eicosanoids and inhibiting the secretion of histamine from mast cells. The presence of flavonoids in the hydroalcoholic extract of wild celery seeds was shown in a previous study and the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of the plant might be partly due to its flavonoids.
| Conclusions|| |
In general, it can be stated that hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of wild celery seed have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but understanding the underlying mechanisms of them requires further studies.
This study was financially supported by the Research Council of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran (project no. 396506).
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Dashti-Rahmatabadi MH, Hejazian SH, Morshedi A, Rafati A. The analgesic effect of Carum copticum
extract and morphine on phasic pain in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:226–8.
Naseri M, Mojab F, Khodadoost M, Kamalinejad M, Davati A, Choopani R, et al.
The study of anti-inflammatory activity of oil-based dill (Anethum graveolens
L.) extract used topically in formalin-induced inflammation male rat paw. Iran J Pharm Res 2012;11:1169-74.
Cregg R, Russo G, Gubbay A, Branford A, Sato H. Pharmacogenetics of analgesic drugs. Br J Pain 2013;7:189–208.
Katzung BG, Trevor AJ. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 13th
ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2015. p. 531-50, 618-41.
Ahmed N, Nasreen F, Husain S, Alam Sh, Ahmed S, Rahman K. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of Tukhme Karafs (Apium graveolens
Linn.) in Swiss albino mice. J Sci Inn Res 2015;4:172-4.
Choi EM, Hwang JK. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare
. Fitoterapia 2004;75:557–65.
Hajhashemi V, Sajjadi SE, Heshmati M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Heracleum persicum
essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract in animal models. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:475–80.
Hajhashemi V, Sajjadi SE, Zomorodkia M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Bunium persicum
essential oil, hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts in animal models. Pharm Biol 2011;49:146-51.
Taherian AA, Vafaei AA, Ameri J. Opiate system mediate the antinociceptive effects of Coriandrum sativum in mice. Iran J Pharm Res 2012;11:679–88.
Mozaffarian V. Two new genera of Iranian Umbelliferae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St Petersburg) 2003;88:88-94.
Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Soltani L. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Amirkabiria odoratissima
. J Res Med Sci 2003;7:121-5.
Minaiyan M, Sajjadi SE, Naderi N, Taheri D. Anti-inflammatory effect of Kelussia odoratissima
Mozaff. Hydroalcoholic extract on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats. J Rep Pharma Sci 2014;3:28-35. [Full text]
Sedighi M, Rafieian-kopaei M, Noori-Ahmadabadi M. Kelussia odoratissima
Mozaffarian inhibits ileum contractions through voltage dependent and beta adrenergic receptors. Life Sci J 2012;9:1033-8.
Baananou S, Borgi W, Mahmoud A, Boukef K, Chouchane N, Aouam K, et al.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Tunisian Apium graveolens
L. leaves extracts in rats. J Biol Act Prod Nat 2012;2:225–31.
Balick MJ, Arvigo R, Esposito RG, Pizza C, Altinier G, Tubaro A, et al.
Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:211-5.
Sajjadi SE, Movahedian Atar AM, Yektaian A. Antihyperlipidemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract, and polyphenolic fraction from Dracocephalum kotschyi
Boiss. Pharm Acta Helv 1998;73:167-70.
Bandar H, Hijazi A, Rammal H, Hachem A, Saad Z, Badran B. Techniques for the extraction of bioactive compounds from Lebanese Urtica dioica.
Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2013;1:507-13.
Choi SS, Lee JK, Suh HW. Antinociceptive profiles of aspirin and acetaminophen in formalin, substance P
and glutamate pain models. Brain Res 2001;921:233-9.
Vogel HG, Vogel WH. Drug Discovery and Evaluation. Berlin: Springer; 1997. p. 368-70.
Winter CA, Riselay EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenan-induced oedema in the hind paw of the rats as an assay for anti – inflammatory drugs. Proc soc Exp Biol Med 1962;111:544-7.
Coderre TJ, Melzack R. The contribution of excitatory amino acids to central sensitization and persistent nociception after formalin-induced tissue injury. J Neurosci 1992;12:3665-70.
Faridi P, Ghasemi Y, Gholami A, Mehregan I, Mohagheghzadeh A. Antimicrobial essential oil from Smyrniopsis aucheri
. Chem Nat Compd 2008;44:116-8.
Santos FA, Rao VSN, Silveira ER. Investigations on the antinociceptive effect of Psidium guajava
leaf essential oil and its major constituents. Phytother Res 1998;12:24-7.
Ozaki Y. Antiinflammatory effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb
, and its active principles. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1990;38:1045-8.
Garcia Leme J, Hamamura L, Leite MP, Rocha e Silva M. Pharmacological analysis of the acute inflammatory process induced in the rat's paw by local injection of carrageenan and by heating. Br J Pharmacol 1973;48:88-96.
White M. Mediators of inflammation and the inflammatory process. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:378-81.
Rathee P, Chaudhary H, Rathee S, Rathee D, Kumar V, Kohli K. Mechanism of action of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: A review. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2009;8:229-35.
Tashkhodzhaev B, Kuliev ZA, Dzhafarov ZR. Crystal and molecular structures of two polymorphs of a furanocoumarin-smyrindiol from Smyrniopsis aucheri
. Chem Nat Compd 1992;28:544-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]