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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38

Aspects of epidemiology, pathology, virology, immunology, transmission, prevention, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 Pandemic: A narrative review

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran and Nickan Research Institute, Iran
3 Department of Disease Management, Deputy of Health, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
4 MSc of Epidemiology, Medical school, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
5 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Para medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
6 Department of Public Health, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran
7 Department of Medical Library and Information Sciences, Health Information Technology Research Center, Student Research Committee, School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
8 Workplace Health Promotion Research Center (WHPRC), School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
9 Department of Clinical Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Siamak Sabour
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Velenjak St,Daneshjoo Blvd, Shahid Chamran Highway, Tehran - 198353-5511
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_469_20

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Undoubtedly, COVID-19 pandemic is one of the largest pandemics and one of the biggest international challenges for health-care system of various countries in the world. This is a narrative review study based on the studies published related with different aspects of COVID-19. The highest numbers of active cases are in the USA, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, as well as Colombia and the disease surveillance system must operate more quickly, timely, effectively, and sensitively in these countries. What is clear is that the SARS-CoV-2 basic reproduction number is significantly higher than one and its transmission power is extremely high. In general, it can be stated that mortality and fatality risk due to COVID-19 in men, age increase, severity of disease, systemic disease, as well as inadequate access to the sufficient health-care services will increase. There is currently no specific treatment and effective vaccine for COVID-19. The novel coronavirus pandemic is more consistent with the epidemiological triangle model, which emphasizes that the disease is the result of the interaction of three factors of host, agent, and environment. Therefore, prevention and treatment activities should focus on cutting the virus transmission chain. The main way to deal with viral epidemics is prevention. The emerging of this ruthless virus has once again reminded us that communicable diseases should never be underestimated and forgotten. Considering the rapid transmission of COVID-19, the health-care authorities and workers should consider timely detection and safeguards to prevent the transmission to healthy individuals.

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