• Users Online: 447
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 125

Micronucleus assay in cell phone users: Importance of oral mucosa screening


Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission11-Jan-2020
Date of Acceptance17-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication29-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Sareh Farhadi
No.:9, 9th Neyestan St., Pasdaran St., Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_489_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: One of the concerns of cell phone users is prolonged exposure to harmful and potentially carcinogenic waves. This study was aimed to investigate the correlation between amount of cell phone use and related factors with percentage of micronucleus containing cells. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on selected patients referring to Islamic Azad University Faculty of Dentistry using cell phones regarding related inclusion and exclusion criteria. Papanicolaou staining method was approached for mucosal smears of samples and frequency of micronucleus containing cells and also, frequency of micronucleus in each cell were recorded for each sample; then, correlation of these findings with amount of daily cell phone usage was statistically analyzed using the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient and preparation of regression analysis (backward) with significant level of lower than 0.05. Results: Of 100 samples, the frequency of micronucleus containing cells was 2.94% ± 1.89% and the frequency of micronucleus in each cell was 1.02% ± 1.68%. The amount of cell phone usage was significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001) and also with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell (r = 0.57, P = 0.0001). Also, age and sex were not significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (P = 0.47 and 0.32) and also with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell, respectively (P = 0.16 and 0.27). Conclusions: The present study showed that the increased amount of cell phone usage had a strong and significant correlation with the higher frequency of the micronucleus containing cells and the higher frequency of micronucleus in each cell in the buccal mucosa. Also, the related factors as age and sex were not significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing buccal mucosa cells.

Keywords: Cell phone, micronucleus, mouth mucosa, prevention


How to cite this article:
Ghandehari M, Sadri D, Farhadi S. Micronucleus assay in cell phone users: Importance of oral mucosa screening. Int J Prev Med 2021;12:125

How to cite this URL:
Ghandehari M, Sadri D, Farhadi S. Micronucleus assay in cell phone users: Importance of oral mucosa screening. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 5];12:125. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2021/12/1/125/327232




  Introduction Top


Currently, more than three billion people in the world use cell phones. One of the concerns of cell phone users is the prolonged exposure to harmful and potentially carcinogenic waves through talking.[1] With the widespread use of cell phones, even a small increase in carcinogenic risk can have a significant impact on public health.[2] In addition, they may be exposed to other waves, such as radio waves, noise, microwave radiation, etc.[3] Cell phones produce radiation in the frequency range of 1–2 MHz.[4] Usually, a cancer diagnosis is made in advanced stages because there are no early obvious clinical signs.[5],[6] However, nuclear alterations occur strongly in the early stages of cancer. These changes in buccal cells were introduced for the first time in 1983 by Stick in this field[7] and today it is used as a biomarker in genetic damage in many cases,[8] which enables the study of nuclear changes in cells exposed to carcinogenesis in conditions prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms of cancer.[9] Exploring nuclear changes in cytological specimens is performed from mouth mucosa of patients, which is simple, noninvasive, and relatively painless.[10]

According to studies, micronucleus assay is one of the most sensitive markers of DNA damage. This marker has been used for genotoxicity studies of various chemicals.[11] It is also used to assess the effects of genetic damage caused by occupational and environmental factors in human epidemiological evaluation and animal testing.[12] Many research has been done on the disadvantages and harmfulness of cell phone waves that yield different results.[13] In a study by Oliveira et al., it is stated that micronucleus is a good parameter to identify high-risk individuals and to determine the biological conditions of oral lesions.[14] Thus, considering the reports on the harmful effects of the waves produced by the use of cell phones as well as the limitations of studies in the field of these effects on oral mucosa, this study was aimed to investigate the correlation between cell phone utilization and related factors and micronucleus frequency of mouth mucosa cells in patients referring to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University at 2018.


  Methods Top


This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study with purpose-based sampling. After approval of ethical consideration from University ethical approval committee, the statistical population was selected from patients referring to Dentistry Faculty of Islamic Azad University using cell phones. Inclusion criteria were living in Tehran who used cell phones to speak directly (without hands free) without history of radiotherapy, alcohol and tobacco and medicines use, systemic disease, recent viral infection, occupations in contact with chemicals, and presence of pathological lesions in the mouth mucosa to eliminate the effect of confounding factors. 100 samples were considered in this study and after obtaining consent from patients about their agreement to cooperate in the research, sampling was made from the buccal mucosa of dominant side of cell phone use with damp tongue depressors (abaisse-longue) and spread on small clean glass slides. The smears prepared on the microscopic slide were fixed with a patofix spray (Iran Teb Co.) After fixation and drying at room temperature, Papanicolaou staining was used to evaluate cells containing micronucleus.[15],[16] Cellular examination was made by Japan-made light microscope (Nikon Ys 100) with 400 times magnification. 500 cells were examined for each sample and the frequency of micronucleus containing cells was reported as percentage. The number of micronucleus in each cell was also counted and the final result was reported too [Figure 1].[16]
Figure 1: Micronucleus containing cells under ×400 magnification by Papanicolaou staining method

Click here to view


Statistical evaluation

Pearson correlation analysis was obtained to investigate the correlation of daily amount of cell phone utilization with the frequency of micronucleus in buccal mucosa cells and also with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell. Although the role of other factors as age and sex was determined by regression analysis (backward method).


  Results Top


100 stained specimens were statistically analyzed and the following findings were obtained.

[Table 1] demonstrates the given data of studied samples as the frequency of micronucleus containing cells was 2.94% ± 1.89% and the frequency of micronucleus in each cell was 1.02% ± 1.68%. But, as shown in [Table 2], based on the results of statistical analysis, the amount of daily cell phone usage was significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001).
Table 1: The evaluated frequencies of the studied samples

Click here to view
Table 2: Statistical evaluation of the correlation of cell phone usage with frequency of micronucleus containing cells and frequency of micronucleus in each buccal cell

Click here to view


Also, the amount of daily cell phone usage was significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell (r = 0.57, P = 0.0001).

In addition, [Diagram 1] shows the correlation between cell phone usage and frequency of micronucleus containing cells. It is clear that most of the points were on the same line and few were scattered, indicating a strong correlation between the two factors of cell phone usage and micronucleus frequency.



In the next step, the correlation of age and sex with frequency of micronucleus containing cells and also with frequency of micronucleus in each cell was investigated and the following results were obtained:

Statistical analysis was determined that age was not significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (P = 0.47) and also with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell (P = 0.16). In addition, sex was not significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (P = 0.32) and as well with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell (P = 0.27).


  Discussion Top


According to studies, micronucleus is introduced as one of the most sensitive markers of DNA damage and used for genotoxicity studies of various chemicals.[11] It is also used to assess the effects of genetic damage caused by occupational and environmental factors in human epidemiological evaluation and also animal experimental studies.[12] Many studies as Oliveira et al.' study[14] have been done on the disadvantages and effects of cell phone waves that yield different results.[13] Oliveira et al.,[17] Souza et al.,[18] and Singh et al.,[19] same to the present study, reported a similar significant increase in nuclear anomaly in cells exfoliated from mouth mucosa. They also found that other uses of cell phones, such as messaging and listening to songs, were less toxic than talking to cell phones. However, we tried to exclude factors other than talking directly to cell phones.

In this regard, Waldman[20] concluded the evaluation of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocyte cells of people using cell phones and reported a significant increase. Despite the similarity of results, the noninvasive micronucleus assay in mouth mucosa cells compared to their evaluation in peripheral blood expresses the superiority of the present study.

Lior et al.[3] and Hintzsch and Stopper,[21] in contrast to the present results, did not observe any significant difference in the amount of cell phone use with micronucleus. Although the study was a cohort study, despite the current study, sampling was approached randomly even left or right side not corresponding to predominant using side.

Also, in the study of Hintzsch and Stopper,[21] which did not report significant results in this field, exposure to other sources of electromagnetic radiation with similar frequencies, including the use of hands-free, was not examined, whereas in our patient questionnaire asked whether they use hands-free or directly touch the cell phone on their face and people who use hands free were excluded. Although the same inclusion and exclusion criteria were existing, there was a significant difference in the findings of the two studies in terms of percentage of cells with micronucleus. This issue can be reminiscent of the local environment exposures.

In addition, unlike the present study, Pellicoli et al.[22] evaluated other nuclear anomalies other than micronucleus including binucleated cell, brocken egg, karyolysis, picknosis, and karyorrhexis and reported the association of these changes with smoking and alcohol and oral lesions, which are the strengths of this study. Also, the study showed that evaluation of cytogenic issue as micronucleus and brocken egg's abnormalities is useful for monitoring the progression of oral cancer.

Also, Batista et al.[23] obtained their samples from the sites with the highest potential rates of cancer, such as the lower lip, tongue side boards, and floor of the mouth. Furthermore, Banerje et al.[1] have shown that the duration of cell phone use is very important; although cell phone frequency is within the permissible range, a long time usage has significant genetic toxicity effects. Some studies have shown that the combination of risk factors such as the effect of occupational exposure in combination with demographic social factors such as age, habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, nutritional status, and chronic and infectious diseases can have important effects on the formation and growth of micronucleus.[24],[25]

In this regard, it is important to know that cell phones and radio base stations that transmit and receive electromagnetic signals are known as electromagnetic radio fields (EMF-RF). EMF-RF do not have enough energy to directly break the DNA's chemical bonds, but may indirectly disrupt the DNA repair mechanism by causing reactive oxygen species, leading genotoxic damage to cells.[5]

The present study has shown that amount of daily cell phone usage had a strong and significant correlation with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells and the frequency of micronucleus in each buccal mucosa cell. Also, the related factors as age and sex were not significantly correlated with these evaluated issues. Based on these results, it can be concluded that human buccal cells are likely to show increased micronucleus cells as a result of the genotoxic effects of cell phone waves which have been chronically exposed. In addition, increasing short-term exposure time, such as increasing cell phone usage per day, can exacerbate the increase in mouth mucosa cell nuclear changes. However, further studies with other nuclear modifications other than micronucleus as well as years of cell phone use are suggested to further confirmation of the results of this study.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify to obtain the appropriate patient consent forms for participation in this research.

Acknowledgment

This article is based on General Dentistry Thesis No.:25911, at 2019 Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran and we are appreciated who were cooperated in this study, especially Dr. Mohammad Javad Kharazifard for Statistical evaluation of findings.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Banerjee S, Nath Singh N, Sreedhar G, Mukherjee S. Analysis of the genotoxic effects of mobile phone radiation using buccal micronucleus assay. A comparative evaluation 2016. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:82-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Hoskote SS, Kapdi M, Joshi SR. An epidemiological review of mobile telephones and cancer. J Assoc Phys India 2008;56:980-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lior I, SanchezSiles M, CamachoAlonso F, LopezJornet F. Effect of mobile phones on micronucleus frequency in human exfoliated oral mucosal cells. Oral Dis 2012;18:78692.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Yadav AS, Sharma MK. Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiation. Mutat Res 2008;650:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kamboj M, Mahajan S. Micronucleus—an upcoming marker of genotoxic damage. Clinical Oral Investigations 2007;11:121-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sadri D, Azizi A, Farhadi S, Shokrgozar H, Entezari N. Head and neck metastatic tumors: A retrospective survey of Iranian patients. J Dent (Shiraz) 2015;16:17-21.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Stick HF, Rosin MP. Quantitating the synergistic effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with the micronucleus test on human buccal mucosa cells. Int J Cancer 1983;31:305-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Palaskar S, Jindal C. Evaluation of micronuclei using Papanicolaou and may Grunwald Giemsa stain in individuals with different tobacco habits-A comparative study. J Clin Diagn Res 2010;4:3607-13.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Stich H, Rosin M, Vallejera M. Reduction with vitamin A and beta-carotene administration of proportion of micronucleated buccal mucosal cells in Asian betel nut and tobacco chewers. Lancet 1984;323:1204-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Saeed H. A cytopathological study of the effect of smoking on the oral epithelial cells in relation to oral health status by the micronucleus assay. J Bagh College Dentistry 2012;24:67-70.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Fenech M. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique and its application to genotoxicity studies in human populations. Environ. Health Perspect 1993;101:101-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ishikawa H, Tian Y, Yamauchi T. Induction of micronuclei formation in preimplantation mouse embryos after maternal treatment with 2-bromopropane. Reprod Toxicol 2001;15:81-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Singh A, Sharma M. Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations. Mutat Res 2008;650:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Oliveira F, Faria Andrade A, Ferreira Malheiros F, Aparecida de Lacerda S, Aparecida Campos A, Zaia JE. Evaluation of the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated cells from oral lesions previously identified by toluidine blue. Acta Cytol 2011;55:344-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Bansal H, Sandhu VS, Bhandari R, Sharma D. Evaluation of micronuclei in tobacco users: A study in Punjabi population. Contemp Clin Dent 2012;3:184.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
16.
Naderi NJ, Farhadi S, Sarshar S. Micronucleus assay of buccal mucosa cells in smokers with the history of smoking less and more than 10 years. Indian J Pathol Microbial 2012;55:433-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
de Oliveira FM, Carmona AM, Ladeira C. Genotoxicity assessment data for exfoliated buccal cells exposed to mobile phone radiation. Data Brief 2017;15:344-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Souza L, Cerqueira E, Meireles J. Assessment of nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium of mobile phone users. Electromagn Biol Med 2014;33:98-102.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Singh A, Sharma M. Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations. Mutat Res 2008;650:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Waldmann P. Influence of GSM signals on human peripheral lymphocytes: Study of genotoxicity. Radiat Res 2013;179:243-53.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Hintzsche H, Stopper H. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users. Toxicol Lett 2010;193:124-30.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Pellicioli AC, Visioli F, Ferreira LA, Danilevicz CK, Carrard VC, Rados PV. Cytogenetic abnormalities in exfoliated oral mucosal cells and their association with oral cancer. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2011;33:271-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Batista N, Visioli F, Magnusson A, Vieirab G. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells. Braz Oral Res 2015;29:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Bolukbas C, Bolukbas FF, Kocyigit A, Aslan M, Selek S, Bitiren M, et al. Relationship between levels of DNA damage in lymphocytes and histopathological severity of chronic hepatitis C and various clinical forms of hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;21:610-6.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Souza L, Cerqueira E, Meireles J. Assessment of nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated cells from the oral epithelium of mobile phone users. Electromagn Biol Med 2014;33:98-102.  Back to cited text no. 25
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed98    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded29    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]